of Philosophical Systems, Vergilius
Ferm, ed. New York: The Philosophical Library, 1950, Chapter 35, pp.
PANPSYCHISM (from the Greek for “all” and “soul”) is the doctrine
that everything is psychic or, at least, has a psychic aspect. It is
sometimes held in the guise of a “two-aspect theory,” that everything is
both physical and psychical. In its more significant form, panpsy-chism
is rather the view that all things, in all their aspects, consist
exclusively of “souls,” that is, of various kinds of subjects, or units
of experiencing, with their qualifications, relations, and groupings or
communities. The view has been accepted by a good many philosophers and
contrast to “idealism,” as this term is often used, panpsychism is not a
doctrine of the unreality of the spatio-temporal world perceived through
the senses, or its reduction to mere “ideas” in the human or divine
mind. The constituents of this world are, for panpsychists, just as
real as human minds or as any mind. Indeed, they are minds, though, in
large part, of an extremely low, subhuman order. Thus panpsychism is
panpsychical realism; realistic both in the sense of admitting the
reality of nature, and in the sense of avoiding an exaggerated view of
the qualities of its ordinary constituents. “Souls” may be very humble
sorts of entities––for example, the soul of a frog––and panpsychists
usually suppose that multitudes of units of nature are on a much lower
level of psychic life even than that.
Panpsychism also contrasts with the monistic tendency of much idealism.
It does not depreciate individual distinctness, and in its most recent
forms it admits some degree of freedom or self-determination, even in
the lowest orders of psyches. In so far, it is pluralistic. This
pluralism of panpsychism is evidently connected with its realism. When
Berkeley (1685-1753) reduced the world to “ideas” in human and divine
minds, he was saying that the inorganic world lacks reality in the full
sense of individuality––for an idea is a function of individuals rather
than itself an individual. Hindu monism (Sankara, 8th century) is a
more extreme denial of individuality to the constituents of nature.
Panpsychism, in contrast, is able to admit all the variety of levels of
individuality, including the ultramicroscopic, which are suggested by
the discoveries of science.
the other hand, the theory can do justice to the motif of monism. For
Whitehead (1861-1947), Royce (1855-1916), Fechner (1801-1887), Varisco
(1850-1933), Haeberlin (1878- ), and other panpsychists have agreed
that the system requires a God, and that individuals other than God, in
spite of this otherness, are in God, not simply outside him.
This does not have a one-sidedly monistic implication, because––as
Whitehead has most clearly seen––individuals generally arenot simply
outside each other (the fallacy of “simple location”) but in each other,
and God’s inclusion of all tings is merely the extreme or super-case of
the social relativity or mutual immanence of individuals. Thus the
monistic principle of inclusiveness itself is given a pluralistic
aspect. There are as many cases of “including other individuals” as
there are individuals.
approaches to panpsychism among the ancients, one might mention Plato’s
doctrine that soul is the principle of all motion; Aristotle’s
statements that the soul is in a manner all tings, that all tings are
moved by God as the lover by what he loves (implying that all things
love, and thus are sentient subjects, i.e., in the widest sense
souls), that a soul is the form of any organized, self-moving body
(implying that is––as there are reasons to think––nature consists
entirely of more or less organized, self-moving bodies, and their
aggregates or groupings, then nature consists entirely of besouled
constituents); and certain echoes of the foregoing in Plotinus.
However, Plato seems to regard Space, or the Receptacle, as seemingly
irreducible to soul, and he does not expressly state that universal
Forms or Ideas are essentially functions of souls. Aristotle has a
bias––going even beyond Plato’s––in favor of unchanging actuality which
leads him to identify soul primarily with what is in principle actual
and fixed, and to account for change and potentiality in terms of some
other principle or “matter”––as though the creativity of soul, its will
to produce novel values, were not as striking a characteristic of it as
any! Indeed, the more conspicuous this character the higher the level
of soul! The Greeks could not make up their minds whether soul were
essentially a principle of change, the principle of change
indeed; or whether it was essentially a principle of fixity; again,
whether soul was essentially a principle, the principle, of variation
and particular individuality, or of identity and universality. This
rather implies an obscure apprehension on their part that soul is all
these things, the principle of reality in its aspects of
being and becoming!
first clear statement of the panpsychist theory seems to have been the
Leibnizian (1646-1716) monadology. But it must be understood that any
features of this earliest formulation are extrinsic to panpsychism as
such. That monads are percipient subjects, which collectively
constitute the universe, is the panpsychic element in Leibniz. This
philosopher seems also to have been the first to develop clearly the
insight (as it has seemed to most panpsychists) that “extension,”
spatiality, is primarily a group character, that groups must have
members, and that such members need not be extended, at least not in the
same sense as the groups. Groups have characters not possessed by their
members, and perhaps extension is such a character. An extended thing
may be really many things, one here, another there, a third in a third
place, the totality being indistinctly perceived by us as one “thing”
with different parts in different places. That ordinary extended things
are such indistinctly perceived groups––the old atomistic conception of
the Greeks––has been more and more verified by science, especially since
Leibniz; what Leibniz contributed was the insight, almost entirely
lacking previously, that there is no reason favoring, and strong reasons
opposing, the supposition that the constituents of extended (i.e.,
composite) “physical” things are simply much smaller, extended
physical things. As against this materialistic interpretation of
atomism, Leinbiz proposed a psychical one. And indeed, if all
the objects of external perception are, as atomism maintains, composites
rather than singulars, then we cannot look to such perception to tell us
what in principle it means to be a singular entity. It is only the
image we have a stone that is unitary, not the stone; therefore, it is
illogical to regard atoms (the real units) as merely very small stones,
or anything of a nature which we can know in the manner in which we know
stones. What other sort of nature, otherwise known, can be pointed to?
Leibniz replies, the human self is a singular entity with real unity, a
unity which is known to us by immediate feeling. Here is the model, and
the only one available, for an idea of the singular reality as such.
The singulars, whose groupings form extension, in that diverse members
of a group are in diverse places, are conceivable only as analogous to
the self. What Leibniz thus discovered is the immensely important fact
(by which all materialism is rendered suspect) that it is not the
function or within the capacity of external perception to tell us
what things are, but only to tell us where they (and especially,
where groups of them) are, in how small or large an area, and how they
are changing their relative positions. If we wish to know what
the things thus distributed in the spatial system may be, we must
supplement external perception by that which alone remains, internal
perception, self-perception, intuitive grasp of the unitary nature of
our experience. We do know to some extent what and not merely where
and when, this experience is. If a man did not know what “experience”
is, he could not claim to verify any assertion. Furthermore, psychology
can give a fair description of how experiences are integrated into the
unity of personality. Thus the “psychic” is a datum.
course, we cannot directly apply our internal experience to the
characterization of things in general; we must generalize, extend into
an infinitely flexible analogy, the basic traits thus accessible to us.
Panpsychism does not undertake to tell us what particular sorts of souls
other than the human there are; only comparative psychology can attempt
to do that. Panpsychism merely says that ultimately comparative
psychology is the inclusive science, with “physics” its most elementary
branch; “physical” laws being (as one would put it today) statistical or
group aspects of the psychological laws of the most elementary and
widely distributed types of psyches. The place of biology in this
scheme is dealt with by the Australian biologist, W[ilfred]. E[ade].
extension is due to groups, does this mean that a singular corresponds
to a geometrical point? Leibniz seems not wholly clear in his answer to
t his question. Many of his successors, e.g., Peirce (1839-1914)
and Whitehead, would say that even a singular does occupy a
space-volume, but the “extension” of this volume is different from that
of visual objects, which are never singulars, and which always consist
of indistinctly perceived members occupying diverse areas. Moreover,
the volume even of singulars would be meaningless apart from some
community of singulars, since space is essentially a system of
relations. Extendedness is then not a property capable of
distinguishing “mere matter” from mind, since minds, as entering into
communal relations with one another, must exhibit extendedness. A mind,
according to most panpsychists, is not simply outside the space-time
world. It is also not at a mere point in that world, and nothing
remains than that it be in an area of the world. And indeed, if our
experience had no spatial character, it could not acquaint us with
panpsychist argument is thus not that extension must consist on
inextended units. The argument is rather: physical objects, as
perceived, are not singulars; the singulars of which they must be
composed are conceivable only as more or less remotely resembling the
human self (since this is for us the only distinctly intuited singular)
but differing from that self in the immensely smaller area of its
effective presence and operation, in the enormously greater number of
its instances in a given world area, I the more monotonous character of
its temporal changes. Such differences can be explained as meaning that
the singulars in question are, taken individually drastically subhuman
in scope, importance, and power. Only through their enormous numbers do
they sometimes collectively seems superior to us, at least in brute
power. Taken one by one, they are unimaginably trivial, in comparison
with ourselves. (Haeberlin and Royce deny this, for reasons that seem
alternative to the atomistic form of panpsychism was developed by
Fechner, and later by Royce. Fechner contrasts the atomistic or
“monadological” view, which we have sketched above, to the “synechological.”
Whereas the former considers such things as atoms (or molecules, perhaps
protons and electrons) as each a sort of rudimentary psyche or unit of
experiencing, Fechner holds that these minute entities are merely the
ultimate elements of “systems,” such as animal organisms, and only these
systems as wholes are sentient subjects. However, he classes among such
systems not only animals, but plants, the earth and the other planets,
and other such large bodies. This is to some extent a return to the
primitive and Greek view which saw in the heavenly bodies conscious and
indeed divine beings. Fechner is the greatest modern defender of this
ancient conception. But he adds to it an astonishingly eloquent
exposition of the theory that plants—for example, trees—are to be
regarded as sentient and conscious. Whatever can be said of this view
must, it seems, have been said by Fechner. And his account of the
earth-soul is similarly eloquent. Since Fechner was a master of the
scientific knowledge of his time, an authority in physics as well as
“founder” of experimental psychology, one cannot but be impressed with
his advocacy of the synechological alternative to monadological
panpsychism. It seems, nevertheless, doubtful if the advances of
science since his time have served to support him. On the one hand, the
discoveries in microscopic life suggest that comparative psychology must
in principle be extended indefinitely downward toward the minute. A
book has even been written on the Psychic Life of Microorganisms.
And the cellular structure of the higher organisms implies that such
“systems,” to use Fechner’s term, consist of simpler systems, and
certain analogies between cells and molecules, together with the
phenomena of viruses, imply that the principle does not end with cells.
So we begin to see nature as consisting of organisms composed or
organisms, on many levels, and Whitehead and others hold that even an
electron is a rudimentary organism or systematic unity. It seems
arbitrary to halt the analogy which is basic to comparative psychology
at any particular level (for other than practical reasons of scientific
convenience relative to the given state of investigation). But, on the
other hand, some of the larger systems Fechner dealt with so
enthusiastically seem to contemporary knowledge rather too loosely
integrated to be accepted as sentient subjects. Thus it is arguable
that a tree has less unity than one of its own cells and even more, that
the earth has less unity than the animals inhabiting it.
Royce’s panpsychism followed Fechner’s in some respects, but added the
remarkable notion that not only individual animals, along with heavenly
bodies, are sentient individuals, but that each species of animal as a
whole is a single conscious individual. Here Royce exploits the
impression that naturally arises in the lover of nature that a single
species of bird (let us say) has its own individuality, which is much
more striking than the individuality of single members of the species.
Each wood thrush sings much like all the others, but none sings like any
other kind of bird. “The song of the wood thrush” has a more impressive
individuality than the song of this or that wood thrush. Variations
among the members of the species seem like moment to moment variations
within one individual. However, in drawing the inference that such a
species is conscious, Royce has not so far had followers.
more important contribution of Royce was the conception of diverse
tempos of psychic life or of diverse spans of the specious present.
Thus whereas a man experiences events lasting over something like a
tenth of a second as a series of events, and cannot distinguish
distinctly those lasting much less than a tenth of a second, there might
be individuals who would experience a millennium as a single happening,
and others for whom a millionth of a second would be a distinct
experience. In this way, Royce tries to deal with the objection which
his and Fechner’s form of panpsychism tends to arouse, that a planet
does not seem to be doing anything very exciting or worth having
feelings about. On our time span, says Royce, nothing may happen to a
planet worth being conscious of, but if the planet experiences a long
period of time as a single happening, enough change may occur in such a
period to provide contrasts dramatic enough for the planet
consciousness. This principle is also stressed by Whitehead, and it
seems scarcely possible to doubt that it has validity, whether or not it
justifies attribution of “souls” to heavenly bodies. It is contrary to
all reasonable analogies to think that even all animals have just the
same span to their specious presents; much less, that the higher animals
and microbes, or microbes and atoms, could do so. It is such dimensions
of variation as this, in principle infinite in extent––for if there be a
specious present of a tenth of a second, why not one of a millionth of a
second, or of a million years, or a billion––it is such unlimited
variability as this that furnish the answer to the objection sometimes
made to panpsychism as such, that it underestimates the variety of
nature. Before we could justify this objection we must first have
established the limits of the variety of possible psychic life. And who
has been able to set such limits? Until and unless they can be set, the
objection has no definite meaning. And it is always to be borne in mind
that what a panpsychist cannot interpret as a single sentient subject he
may be able to deal with as a group or crowd of subjects (the Leibnizian
principle) or as an element in a more comprehensive single subject (the
important question is, how psychic singulars can interact or be related
to one another, and thus constitute the extended world of “physical”
reality. Leibniz denied literal interaction, and substituted
“preestablished harmony” through the divine fiat. He has not been
followed in this notion, which involves forbidding paradoxes.
Interaction has since been accepted by every representative panpsychist.
But the problem is, to point to something in experience that gives a
basis for the concept of interaction. Lotze (1817-1881) wrestled with
the problem, but his solution is merely to posit that we are all parts
of One spiritual being, whose parts interact, since they are not
separate entities but are unified through the whole inclusive of them.
But this is largely verbal, as it stands. Fechner’s view was similar.
Peirce and Whitehead are the thinkers who really effect an advance here.
According to Peirce, one of the three universal aspects of experience,
or supreme categories, is “reaction,” which means, an element of
experience containing intrinsic reference to something other than
itself. Peirce points out that experience is pervaded by a sense of
duality, of dynamic relatedness to another, as in such pairs as
effort-resistance, struggle-obstacle, “the novel––the
expected,” present-past, feeling-thing felt, subject-object. Pierce
maintains cogently that this dynamic duality cannot be treated as a mere
illusion, a mere feeling of reaction, but must be accepted as a felt
reaction of feelings, a real transaction between an experience and
something other than itself. This real reference to another, Peirce
calls Secondness or the Dyad. His three categories are,
Feeling-quality, Striving or Reaction, Meaning or Representation. These
correspond to the monadic, dyadic, and triadic elements of all
experience respectively. In this scheme panpsychism acquires greater
precision of language than it formerly possessed. That all is psychic
means, all is feeling, in reaction with other feeling, and more or less
shot through with meaning or sign-character. (To reach Peirce’s
conception, we must take Feeling to include all the qualitative content
of sensation, often classed under cognition.)
important contribution involved in Peirce’s view is his uniquely vivid
sense of the spontaneous, creative, or chance-character of the life of
feeling; the radical absurdity of looking for a reason for blue or green
or sour or any other quality of feeling. Process in its details issues
from no necessity, but is a continual influx of unpredictable novelty.
Law is everywhere only statistical and approximate, and on the higher
levels of mind the regularities are even less complete. Another
contribution is in the recognition of the basic rôle of sympathy in
reality. Feelings react with other feelings, but in this reaction is
involved some degree of participation in the qualities of these other
feelings. A feeling feels the feelings to which it reacts. Feelings
echo to some extent the feelings around them, and this is the basis of
the possibility of relationships among realities by which they
constitute a world of things relevant to one another.
Similar ideas (developed independently) along with many new ones in a
much more fully articulated system are found in the panpsychic
metaphysics of Whitehead, who, it is probably safe to say, will stand
out, with Leibniz, as one of the two great artificers of the panpsychic
philosophy in its present form.
have seen that the contribution of Leibniz to our theme was primarily
his freeing atomism from its illogical alliance with materialism.
Atomism here means topological pluralism, the principle that in diverse
perceived “places” are not merely parts of one extended thing, but
always diverse things, collectives of which are what are perceived as
extended. Now the same principle can be applied to time as to space.
In different experienced moments of time are not merely different
states, or temporal parts, of one thing enduring through time, but
different things, and it is only sequences of these things that have
extension or endurance through time. This temporal atomism or
chronological pluralism is termed “epochalism” by Whitehead. A single
temporal unit or epoch is not a mere instant, but a “specious present,”
a unitary experience or quantum of process, just as even the least thing
in space, say an electron, is not a mere physical point. In both cases,
there is a unit which is not actually divided into, or composed of,
smaller units; but, although not divided, it is conceptually divisible.
It is a least actual, but not a least possible, part of space or time.
The mathematical continuum of point-instants is the system of all
possible divisions of space-time; the atomic-epochal units are the
actual divisions at a given moment. The human specious present is the
only epoch we directly experience with any vividness, just as the
spatial spread of a human experience is the only atomic unit. In
perceiving the non-human world we are always apprehending collectives,
both spatial and temporal. To form even a vague conception of the
singulars composing these collectives our only resource is to generalize
analogically the epochal and atomic characters of human experiences.
units of reality, then, are unit-experiences, “experient-occasions,” or
“actual entities,” not “souls.” It may seem that the name panpsychism
should no longer be applied (it is, to be sure, never used by Whitehead
himself). However, “psychology without a soul” has long been with us,
and the word “psyche” cannot conveniently be restricted to a certain
theory of the temporal structure of experience rather than another.
Moreover, the analogy between the human soul and other individuals is
still in force in Whitehead; it is merely given a more subtle, complex,
and carefully generalized formulation. The tendency for experiences to
occur in integrated sequences, expressive of enduring individuals
characteristics, is not confined to human beings. The higher animals
have something analogous, though the modes of integration, through
memory and persisting purposes and so on, are much simpler and radically
inferior in degree of consciousness. And even the sequences of
occasions constituting a cell or an atom may have some bits of
memory-echoes and flashes of rudimentary anticipation, and certainly
there must be some continuity of quality running through these
sequences. So far as nature thus consists of enduring
individuals, with self-identity through time, this identity will be
analogous to that of souls. But whereas the old theory admitted two
forms of change, irreducible to any common principle: the creation of
new actualities (such as souls), and the production of new states
of an already existing actuality (such as new experiences of a soul),
chronological pluralism or epochalism has but the creation of new
actualities, i.e., unit experiences. New souls do indeed come
into being, but that is not an additional principle but a special
application of the universal principles by which occasions supersede one
another in time. For every such occasion has intrinsic reference
(somewhat as in Peirce’s theory of reaction) to preceding occasions,
with which it has some degree of sympathetic participation, echoing
their qualities, but with a new over-all quality of its own as it reacts
to them. Ordinary “memory” is merely a privileged case of this
intrinsic reference of experiences to their predecessors, and the
persistence of personality traits is a privileged case of the
qualitative echoing of old experiences in new ones. Some occasions form
single strand sequences, each member of which echoes certain qualities
common to the whole sequence. This type of sequence is said to have
“personal order,” since it is analogous to the stream of experiences
constituting the inner life of a human person. In other cases the
relations of reaction (Whitehead’s term is “causal efficacy,” or
“conformation of feeling to feeling,” or “physical prehension”) form
multiple strand sequences structurally not analogous to a soul. But
always there is analogy to the unit experience from which all knowledge
can barely mention once more the new synthesis of theistic and
pantheistic insights by which, especially in Fechner and Whitehead, God
as supreme psyche completes the panpsychic system. God includes the
lesser subjects, but so that their freedom is preserved and his
responsibility for the details of their acts is not unlimited. This
involves an aspect of passivity and process toward novelty in God,
despite the eternal necessity of his existence and essential character.
W. E. Agar,
The Theory of the Living Organism (Melbourne, London, 1943).
________, “The Wholeness of the Living Organism,” Philosophy of
Science, vol. xv (1948), pp. 179-91.
The Psychic Life of Microorganism (Chicago, 1903).
G. T. Fechner,
The Religion of a Scientist: Selections from G. Th. Fechner. Ed.
and trans. by W. Lowrie (New York, 1946).
________, Zend-Avesta oder über die Dinge des Himmels und die
Jenseits. Vol. I (especially chs. x, xi) (Hamburg, Leipzig, 1851).
First Adventures in Philosophy (New York, 1936).
Naturphilosophische Betrachtungen (Zürich 1939-40).
________, Logik (Zürich 1947).
Beyond Humanism (Part ii), (Chicago, 1937).
________, Man’s Vision of God (Chicago, 1941); New York, 1948).
G. W. Leibniz,
Discourse on Metaphysics, Correspondence with Arnold, etc.
________, Monadology and Other Writings (New York, 1898).
W. P. Montague,
The Ways of Things (New York, 1940).
Introduction to Philosophy, tr. by F. Thilly (New York, 1912).
C. S. Peirce,
Collected Papers, Vol. I, VI (Harvard, 1931-35).
________, The Philosophy of Peirce: Selections, J. Buchler, ed.
(New York, London, 1940.
________, Chance, Love and Logic (New York, 1923, 1949).
The World and the Individual, Vol. II (New York, 1901).
C. A. Strong,
Essays on the Natural Origin of the Mind (London, 1930).
Know Thyself (London, 1915).
Wissenschaft und Weltanschauung (Leipzig, 1939, 1949).
A. N. Whitehead,
Science and the Modern World, (New York, 1925).
________, Process and Reality, (New York, 1929, 1949).
________, Adventures of Ideas, (New York, 1933, 1948).
________, Modes of Thought, (New York, 1938).
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